Are Children Learning

Ready or not, online tests coming to Colorado

Colorado kids will get a chance to put their computer skills – and their academic knowledge – to high-stakes use when the state’s first online tests roll out later this school year for some students.

The plan is for the tests to be piloted this year followed by statewide testing in 2015.

Testing illustrationSo by the spring of 2015 more Colorado students will be taking more tests than under the current TCAP system, and they will be taking those tests on computers and tablets.

And, those students likely won’t be scoring as well as they did on the TCAPs, given that the new tests, partly based on the Common Core Standards, will be testing different things and are supposed to be harder than exams given in the past.

In the meantime, administrators and tech staff in districts across the state are fretting as they try to gear up for a whole new testing environment. Districts are worried about whether they have enough bandwidth and enough computers, but some administrators are even more concerned about the planning and tight scheduling that will be needed to fit online tests into school calendars.

“The general state of readiness is – we’re probably at a C-minus,” said Steven Clagg, chief information officer for Aurora Public Schools and president of the Colorado Association of Leaders in Education Technology. Clagg tempers his remark by noting his impression is based on anecdotal evidence, adding, “I think the state of Colorado is going to make it through this, but it won’t be without pain.”

The first wave of about 240,000 students will face new tests in April 2014 when students in four grades will take social studies or science tests. High school seniors will take both of those tests in the fall of 2014.

And, in the spring of 2015, all Colorado students in grades three through 11 will take online tests in language arts and math. Those will replace the TCAP reading, writing and math tests currently given to students in third through 10th grade. The new tests are being developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC).

The social studies and science tests are launching during the same school year that districts are implementing new content standards on which the PARCC tests will be based, rolling out upgraded early literacy programs for students in kindergarten through third grade and evaluating all principals, assistant principals and teachers using systems based on the landmark 2010 educator effectiveness law. All of those mandates have ratcheted up the level of anxiety in school districts statewide. (See this EdNews story about the new evaluation systems.)

Here’s a look at the some of the features of and the issues raised by the new tests.

Testing the tests

The science and social studies exams were field tested last April in 261 schools, where 25,408 sample tests were given.

“We were very pleased with how that spring field test went,” said Joyce Zurkowksi, Colorado Department of Education executive director of assessment. “Our small districts did fine.” Clagg agrees that the spring tests provided valuable lessons.

The Hanover district southeast of Colorado Springs participated in the field test. Paul McCarty, superintendent of the 227-student, two-school district, said the experience highlighted the challenges of online testing.

McCarty’s district doesn’t have a technology staffer and has to rely on help from the area board of cooperative educational services. He’s worried about smaller districts like his having to rely on staff members who don’t have the appropriate tech background.

More sample tests will given this autumn, at elementary and middle schools during the second half of September and in high schools starting in late October.

Short sample tests also are available online (check them out here), and CDE is encouraging schools to have students practice on those tests so they can become familiar with the look and feel of the exams.

Who’s tested and when

The TCAP reading, writing and math tests, like the CSAPs before them, have been given every spring to students in the third through 10th grades. Students have taken science tests in grades five, eight and 10. Last spring about 500,000 students took a total of about 1.7 million exams.

That schedule is shifting.

The social studies tests will be given in the fourth and seventh grades. While science will continue to be tested in fifth and eighth grades, 10th graders will be off the hook. Instead, social studies and science tests will be given to high school students in the fall of senior year, the first time that statewide tests have been given to 12th graders.

Next spring will mark the first statewide testing on social studies; science tests have been around awhile but previously have been given on paper.

The new PARCC tests will be expanded to include 11th graders, who also will continue to take the ACT college-readiness test.

What the tests will be like

The biggest change for students, of course, will be taking tests on computers rather than with pencil and paper.

Tests will include multiple choice items, some of which will require students to move suggested answers around on the screen, as well as questions that involve reading a text and writing an answer.

The timing of PARCC tests also will be different from the TCAPs. The new exams will be given in two segments, one about three-quarters of the way through the school year and the second closer to the end of the year. Districts will be allowed “testing windows” of a few weeks intended to give them enough time to test students with the equipment available.

Students also are likely to spend a bit more time on the PARCC tests than they do on TCAPs. (See this CDE chart for a comparison.)

It’s estimated that total PARCC testing time will be eight hours for third graders, just over nine hours in grades four and five, a little less than nine and a half hours in middle school and just over nine and a half hours in high school.

Clagg and others believe the new tests will require a whole new approach by teachers and administrators.

For instance, he said, “Proctoring is going to be a lot different. … We believe you’re going to have to have two people in a room or maybe more.”

He also noted that computers often are packed closely in school computer labs. “You’re going to have kids shoulder to shoulder taking this tests.” He said that during testing this spring students sometimes looked at neighboring screens. “They weren’t trying to cheat. They just got distracted for a minute” by movement or a flash of color on a neighboring monitor.

Sample test question
Picture of sample question from new Colorado science tests.

So, Clagg said, proctors will have to learn a new set of skills, including restarting computers when they lock up, to effectively monitor online testing.

He also said the school tech staffers – or administrators in districts without the luxury of IT experts – will have to learn how to prepare computers ahead of time. Automated processes like an anti-virus scan will have to be turned off, he said, because they will lock a test if they fire up while a student is working.

Clegg also said schools will have to get highly organized about test scheduling in order to make the most efficient use of the computers available.

Hanover’s McCarty is worried more about scheduling than he is about tech issues like bandwidth.

“I think the scheduling of classes is huge,” he said. “We don’t have that many computers, and we try to use and teach and use technology as much as we can.” He noted that reserving a computer lab for testing will make it unavailable for instructional use.

Clagg echoes that concern. “What about the classes that were going to use that lab? A lot of the challenge is going to be, what’s the ripple effect of the test? … We’re going to have to be really creative in the districts.”

Will school districts be ready?

Zurkowski believes school districts will be ready for next spring’s social studies and science tests, which she said “will help us gauge what’s needed for PARCC. …We are really expecting that by 2015 we will have worked through some of the hiccups.”

Based on data compiled from a sample of districts, CDE estimates 43.1 percent of middle and elementary schools can complete the science and social studies tests in less than five days, and 51.4 percent can do that in six to 10 days.

The department also estimates 85.5 percent of high schools can do 12th grade testing in under five days and that 10.5 percent can do so in six to 10.

Next spring’s tests are being provided by Pearson Education, one of the nation’s largest testing companies. Zurkowski said Pearson also is expected to provide the PARCC tests, so similarity in test format and technical specifications should be an advantage for Colorado.

There’s been a lot of concern about districts’ access to high-speed Internet connections – bandwidth – but Zurkowski believes one Pearson technology should ease some of those concerns.

The company offers what’s called “proctor caching,” which means districts can download full sets of test materials and that students can take the exams on a local network and not have to rely on a fast Internet connection. Once testing is finished the completed tests are transmitted back to Pearson.

“The proctor caching is going to help us a lot in this state,” she said. For instance, CDE estimates that in a sample district only 76 tests could be taken over the Internet simultaneously but that more than 1,000 machines could access a test on a local district network.

Clagg agrees that caching will help districts but notes, “It takes a bit of knowledge to get it implemented.”

Beyond bandwidth, Clagg notes that schools face other challenges. “Do districts have enough devices?”

CDE has calculated generous testing windows to account for limits on the number of computers that districts have. Clagg thinks those windows are good, but “the key thing is going to be scheduling.”

Asked if districts plan to buy new equipment for testing, Clagg said, “Everybody’s thinking about that.” Testing “is making us ask harder questions about the devices we’re buying. We have to look at multipurpose devices.”

McCarty said he thinks Hanover is ready for spring 2014 – if everything goes right – but that the PARCC tests in 2015 present a different challenge.

“At some point we’re going to have to set aside more money for computers and convert another classroom to a computer lab.”

The cost of new tests

PARCC announced last month that the estimated cost of its English and math tests would be $29.50 per student, just below the current median cost of $29.95 for states participating in the multi-state group.

Zurkowski said that’s “pretty comparable to what Colorado is used to,” citing a figure of $29.25.

The department’s 2014-15 budget request, which will be considered by the 2014 legislature, is expected to include $3.4 million in additional funds for the PARCC tests. Zurkowski said that covers addition of 11th grade tests and a bit extra to pay for paper tests for districts that may not be ready for online. (The PARCC paper tests come to about $34 per student.)

CDE also is likely to request an additional $300,000 for increased costs of ACT and English language proficiency tests, plus $3 million for early literacy assessments.

The state currently budgets about $34 million a year for all testing costs, including the TCAPs, science and social studies, work on “augmentations” to the PARCC tests, development of Spanish literacy assessments, alternate assessments for students with significant cognitive disabilities, ACT tests and ACCESS, an English language proficiency assessment. (The federal government provides about $7.6 million of the testing budget.)

Districts long have complained that they also bear the burden of testing costs, but it’s hard to put numbers on that.

Teachers and other professionals, of course, are on the payroll whether they’re proctoring tests or giving normal classroom lessons.

But there are other costs as well. A cost study done for the plaintiffs in the Lobato v. State school funding lawsuit estimated that schools, depending on size, bear non-personnel assessment costs of between $25 and $50 a student. Zurkowski said CDE hasn’t researched district testing costs.

Asked about district costs for the coming new tests, Clagg said, “I have not come up with a forecasted cost for this [but] there is going to be a cost for districts,” including for training.

The bigger issue, Clagg said, is that “The cost is an opportunity cost. What aren’t we doing so we can do this?”

New tests equal lower achievement

One of the final slides in a CDE presentation at a recent Colorado Association of School Executives convention gives this gives this understated warning:

“Given the increased rigor of both the Colorado Academic Standards and the new assessments, it is reasonable to prepare for a drop in performance based on them compared to the performance demonstrated under the current system.”

Department officials have been sounding that warning for months in a variety of meetings, and it’s commonly accepted that average performance drops when tests are changed, particularly when new exams test new skills.

Proficiency levels dropped in New York State after students took new tests based on the Common Core Standards. (See this Gotham Schools story for details.) Kentucky had a similar experience last year after students took new tests.

Tracking and using the data

While achievement levels are expected to drop, results on old and new tests aren’t necessarily comparable because they’re based on different standards, CDE officials say.

Past TCAP results “are going to become irrelevant in a very short period of time,” Zurkowski said. “Can we compare those numbers?” – referring to percentages of students scoring proficient or advanced. “Probably not.”

CDE officials are more concerned about the Colorado Growth Model, which calculates student test score growth over multiple years to determine if students are making sufficient progress. Growth is a key factor in the state’s accountability and rating system of districts and schools.

Alyssa Pearson, director of CDE’s accountability and data analysis unit, said the department is working on how to make the growth model bridge TCAP results and the new tests. “You can do it,” she said. Pearson noted that Colorado recently switched English language proficiency tests and was able to track most growth data across the two sets of data.

But, she said, calculating one key piece of growth data – whether a student is making adequate growth toward proficiency – probably will require two years of data from the new tests.

What if new tests aren’t ready?

The PARCC tests – and the Common Core Standards on which they’re based – have come under fire recently in some states. (See this EdNews story.)

Robert Hammond
Robert Hammond / File photo

During a recent State Board of Education budget session, chair Paul Lundeen asked if CDE should set money aside to pay for other tests if the PARCC exams aren’t ready in 2015.

Education Commissioner Robert Hammond, who sits on PARCC’s board, said, “So far my belief is they will make it.”

If that doesn’t happen, Colorado has other options, Associate Commissioner Jill Hawley told the board. “We may some options; we could still procure tests with another vendor. … The potential for getting something off the shelf exists.”

History alive

Inspired by Hamilton, Colorado students perform their own raps and poems on the big stage

PHOTO: Photo by Hyoung Chang/The Denver Post
From left, West Leadership Academy's Alexandra Andazola Chavez, Jose Torres Andazola, Rossy Martinez Sanchez, and Zehydi Chaparro Rojas perform "The Story of Peggy."

The plush red seats at the Wednesday matinee of Hamilton in Denver were filled with 2,700 teenagers who’d spent weeks studying a special curriculum about the hip-hop musical’s namesake, Alexander Hamilton, and the other Founding Fathers. Even though the show’s four-week Denver run had been sold out for months, the teenagers were seeing it for free.

Some of them had dressed for the occasion in high-heeled boots and three-piece suits. Others wore jeans and Converse. They represented 38 Colorado high schools that serve high proportions of students from low-income families, and many of them were students of color.

That’s notable because most of the cast of Hamilton are actors of color. Hamilton, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson are played by black and Latino actors, a decision creator Lin-Manuel Miranda has said reflects America’s racial makeup and is meant to pull the audience into the story of an immigrant, Hamilton, who played an important role in the nation’s founding.

Before the show, 23 students took the stage to perform their own spoken word poems, raps, monologues, and scenes inspired by what they’d learned from the Hamilton Education Program curriculum, which was devised in part by Miranda and has its own hashtag: #EduHam.

“My body felt electrified,” said Josiah Blackbear, a 15-year-old sophomore at West Early College in Denver, who performed a rap he’d written about Alexander Hamilton. “The words I was speaking brought power and truth to the rest of the venue.”

Here is video of six of the student performances, including one entirely in Spanish.


During Memphis visit, former Newark schools chief touts ways to change student discipline

PHOTO: Governor's Office/Tim Larsen
Cami Anderson when she was superintendent of schools in Newark, New Jersey.

As the top schools chief in Newark, Cami Anderson was horrified at the strict discipline policy she saw in one of her high schools. Since then, she has left the New Jersey district and taken her ideas on the road about reducing suspensions and moving away from exclusionary discipline practices.

This week, Anderson came to Memphis as part of her Discipline Revolution Project at the invitation of Stand for Children Tennessee, The Community Foundation of Greater Memphis, School Seed, and Shelby County Schools. The New Teacher Project is partnering with her on the national tour.

Anderson has been meeting with Shelby County Schools administrators and board members as well as charter school leaders, philanthropists, education advocates, and students. Her time will culminate in a public event hosted by Stand for Children on Thursday at the National Civil Rights Museum.

Chalkbeat sat down with Anderson after she explained to a group of about 40 charter leaders her six focus areas to reduce classroom disruptions while also preventing sending students home when they’re in trouble. (This interview was edited for clarity and brevity.)

Related story: Tennessee students more likely to be suspended if they’re black boys — or live in Memphis

Question: How did you land on student discipline as an area you wanted to focus on?

Answer: If there’s actually a thread in my career, it’s this. I essentially ran the system of supports for the kids in New York City who are on their last stop on the train, so to speak. I’ve always worked with kids who are marginalized, the ones who really struggled in school. So, I’ve spent a lot of time thinking about what we need to get better at collectively to serve all kids, to really embrace the “all means all.” That’s been my lifelong question.

The three areas to me where inequities are most obvious are: enrollment policies, how we handle discipline, and mobility and how a kid stays connected to school. Discipline is where it comes to a head. It’s both a place where our collective inability to reach all kids shows up and it’s also an opportunity if we actually figure out how to prevent young people from misstepping in the first place, but then respond in healthy ways when they do Then we’d actually start to solve the broader equity issues.

Q. School leaders say they don’t want to have a lot of suspensions because students miss out on class. But they’re also not sure what to replace suspensions with to manage student behavior well. What would you say to them?

"You can’t just be against something. You have to be for something."Cami Anderson

A. That’s one of the main reasons we started Discipline Revolution Project. We don’t want you to do X, whatever X is: suspend kids, use corporal punishment. But educators are saying, rightfully so, then what are we doing? Our whole framework is trying to answer that question and give them tools to get to the “why” behind finding alternative responses.

Most people who use punitive or exclusionary discipline don’t actually think it works that well. They just don’t have a lot of other tools. So, when you give folks a lot of other tools and they find that it works, it’s a very powerful thing. When people try out a restorative conference, they say “Oh, I feel better. The kid feels better. And we actually got back to the lesson faster.” You can’t just be against something. You have to be for something.

I’ve heard a lot of demand for basics of restorative practices (conflict resolution between students and students and teachers), though I don’t think they should stop there. They want training for student support teams. And overwhelmingly, the places I’ve been want to talk about how teacher bias plays into who gets disciplined, but they don’t know how to start the conversation and for it to be productive.

Q. Memphis’ two school districts have emphasized a bottom-up approach on discipline reform: adding behavior specialists, school counselors, soliciting support from principals and teachers. How have you seen other districts do it?

"Policy-level change is critical but insufficient if you only do that."Cami Anderson

A. I’ve seen districts lead with policy and only make statements declaring they will cut suspensions in half or put a moratorium on suspensions or rewrite their policy. Policy-level change is critical but insufficient if you only do that. What you see is folks who are actually on the ground working with students may not have the strategies to replace it with something productive. That causes people to be more entrenched in their views that discipline reform wouldn’t work, some schools subtly pushing kids out, underreporting discipline data, all that.

I’ve also seen the opposite where it’s all about professional development and capacity but at no point is there is any accountability for those same schools, for example, that suspend 90 percent of the kids. People watch what you do, not what you say. If you don’t align your policies and your actions with your values, then you also have limits to the impacts you have for kids.

Frustrated with high suspension rates, Memphis schools shift to restorative justice

I’ve come to believe you need all of it and you need everyone working together. Stop admiring the problem and get on to the solutions.

Q. What pushed student discipline practices more widely into the national conversation? What have you observed from the conversation here in Memphis?

A. People are looking at data, which is a good thing, and seeing patterns like everyone else. Another thing is I believe a lot of people who got into education reform are completely dedicated to equity. And now they’re seeing this side of it, and like someone said in the training today, they feel a sense of “healthy guilt.” I think it’s great they’re having the courage to be honest. And then a lot of folks had kids. You start thinking, “Do I want any of that happening to my own kid?” I’m personally heartened and encouraged and motivated to see a collective sense of responsibility and focus on this.

There’s a lot of energy and candor in Memphis about this issue. Some other cities I’ve been in think they have it figured out when they don’t. When there’s that much energy, I think anywhere — including in Memphis — people can be tempted to devolve into the blame game, no matter what district or charter hat you wear. That energy can be the greatest asset or greatest liability.

Study: When Chicago cut down on suspensions, students saw test scores and attendance rise

Q. The school shooting in Parkland has been a catalyst for more conversations about the trauma students bring into the classroom — conversations that were already happening about violence in low-income communities of color. What would you say to school leaders on how to address that?

A. I’m most interested to know what adults can do to mitigate those risk factors for young people who experience trauma. I feel like it could take us down a very bad path to just observe that there are things called “adverse childhood experiences.” To me, that’s not enough. The question then is what are the environments and strategies that we can put in place as educators and adults to mitigate the impact of those traumatic experiences. Things like relationships, trust, consistency, high expectations, high supports, and support healthy identity development especially in times of conflict. We know from research that young people who face long odds who ultimately prevail, they are exposed to environments that really embody those things.

You can both be aware of and acknowledge those experiences that make it harder for them to succeed in school. But if you stop there, I don’t think you’re doing justice to young people. There are things we can do in schools to help create the environment to help them succeed.