How I Teach

For this Colorado reading teacher, veering off the lesson plan sometimes makes sense

PHOTO: Adams 12 Five Star Schools
Rachel Harrison works with students at North Mor Elementary School in Northglenn.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

As a reading intervention teacher at North Mor Elementary School in the Adams 12 Five Star School district, Rachel Harrison sometimes scraps her lesson plans mid-way through if students aren’t getting it. Such deviations, she says, can feel risky but are critical in heading off achievement gaps. It’s all part of her responsive teaching style.

Harrison is one of 15 teachers selected for the inaugural Colorado Teaching Policy Fellowship operated by the national nonprofit Teach Plus. The nine-month program aims to involve teacher leaders in state-level education policy discussions, including the implementation of the Every Student Succeeds Act.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

What’s your routine like when you arrive at school?

I usually begin my day by re-reading my lesson plans. I rehearse what I am going to say, predict possible misconceptions or errors, plan how I am going to respond and choose which scaffolding techniques I will use. Then, I head out into the second or third grade hallway for breakfast duty and begin the school day by greeting all the students by name and wishing them a good day.

What does your classroom look like?

I am located in a small and cozy kitchenette on the backside of the building. It is filled with varying levels of books, sentence stems, vowel and reading strategy posters. You will often find small groups of four to five students around a small half circle-shaped table. You will hear lots of chaos — reading, feedback exchanged between the student and myself, laughter and, at times, even some tears.

What apps/software/tools can’t you teach without? Why?

I simply cannot live without my student goals graphs. I’ve been using them for years and it’s the biggest motivator for all my students. They absolutely love keeping track of their progress in reading by setting goals, graphing results and planning for the next month.

We have lots of in-depth discussions on how to achieve our goals, what went well in achieving the goal and what we need to do next. The graphs help teach them how to be accountable for their own learning.

How do you plan your lessons?

I always plan with end goal in mind. I start there and then plan backwards. During our lesson, I take a few notes on each student, reflect on what went well and perhaps what needs to be re-taught or we need to work on the next day. I plan from day to day, really keeping in mind what students need, what they must master, how to create a complete picture of where we are going and why.

What qualities make an ideal lesson?

You have to specifically target your lesson for each day, while keeping the short- and long-term goals of the standards in mind. You must plan for possible errors that students may make and how to respond when they occur. Planning for these has changed my teaching and really helped me to be responsive with all my students.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?

I ask questions until I understand what the student needs. I’ve completely scrapped a lesson when the feedback from students tells me we may need to go back or I have started a new lesson when students demonstrate that they “got it.” Recently, I was observed by my principal doing this very thing. She told me she appreciated how responsive I was to the needs of students by quickly adapting instead of continuing with the lesson when it was clear they were completely lost.

Sometimes, as teachers, we continue with the curriculum because we are supposed to. However, I believe that this is how gaps in achievement occur. It is vital that we allow ourselves to deviate if necessary, so that we don’t continue to create holes which lead to gaps in learning.

What is your go-to trick to re-engage a student who has lost focus?

I believe in building a strong relationship with each student. I like to know what excites and motivates them. It is different for each student, but often if I understand what motivates them, I can motivate them to re-engage and successfully achieve their goals. My “go-to” strategy is to have them teach their fellow students whatever it is we are working on.

How do you maintain communication with the parents?

I like to call parents when their children are successful — for example, when they achieve their personal reading goals, get ready to exit intervention, or help other students. It’s not always welcome news to hear that a child needs reading support, so I make an effort to contact parents when there is something positive to relay.

What are you reading for enjoyment?

Currently, I am reading two books, “All the Light We Cannot See” by Anthony Doerr and “Overcoming Dyslexia” by Sally E. Shay. I enjoy reading historical fiction and nonfiction books about World War II when I am running on the elliptical machine during my early morning workouts before work. At night, I love to read books that help improve my teaching before I fall asleep.

What’s the best advice you ever received?

The best advice I received was from another teacher before I began teaching. She simply said, “Love your students. Get to know them. They will in return want to do their best for you.” Her advice has never failed me.

How I Teach

An earth science teacher talks about the lesson that’s a point of pride — and pain

PHOTO: File Photo

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

Cheryl Mosier’s favorite lesson about the properties of light waves is one that her students enjoy, too. Some spend all day Snapchatting about it.

But the lesson also brings up painful memories for the Columbine High School earth science teacher because she was teaching it the day of the deadly shooting there in 1999.

Mosier stopped teaching the lesson for a few years, but ultimately brought it back into the mix. In fact, a video of that lesson was part of the package that earned her the Presidential Award for Excellence in Math and Science Teaching in 2007.

Mosier shared her thoughts on how she builds relationships with students, why she’s always nice to custodians and secretaries, and what she reads for fun.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?

I first taught when I volunteered at my local swimming pool during swim lessons. I knew then that teaching fit my personality as I had the ability to have fun and teach content. During high school, I was inspired by my math and science teachers (Ms. Finnegan and Ms. Chaloupka) as they were able to make math and science accessible for all students.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my ___________Why?

My husband. He teaches literally next door to me, and teaches earth science. We collaborate on everything and help each other solve problems as they arise. We are each other’s sounding boards and he keeps me sane and I keep him thinking outside the box. He hates it when I attend a conference or meeting because I make him change something else.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?

Fingerprints of Light — on spectroscopy — is honestly my favorite, but also my most dreaded. I was teaching that lesson on April 20, 1999, so it took me a couple of years to do it again with students.

During the 2007 school year, I applied for the Presidential Award of Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching, and this lesson was the one my husband filmed for the application. I found out a year later that I was the awardee, so this lesson holds a special place in my heart.

Another reason I love this lesson is seeing the excitement of my students. We use the diffraction grating in “Rainbow Peepholes” — small disks with the grating in the middle to look through — which act as tiny prisms splitting the light into the basic wavelengths. This is the one lesson that is Snapchatted all day long – they love taking pictures of the different lights and make some amazing stories.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?

Students typically collaborate in class and have the opportunity to retake quizzes and tests in an effort to help them learn the content rather than just do the work. When they don’t understand they ask someone – a friend or me to help them figure it out.

My students have to adjust to my style, though, as I make them tell me where in their work their understanding broke down. They have to be able to specifically state where they are stuck, rather than just saying “I don’t get it” because I will ask them “What don’t you get? Show me where you got stuck.” Larger issues of learning styles are managed on an individual basis as I know that not every student can learn from watching videos. So those get addressed as needed and as students recognize what does and doesn’t work for them.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task? To a casual observer, my students are constantly off task in my room, because they are working collaboratively. Freshmen are very social creatures, and need to be able to interact with each other. At the beginning of the year, I train them in the major tasks for each class, so they know what to expect each block.

If I need to, I’ll put a phone in “phone jail” if they are being distracted by it, but this isn’t very often. One trick I use at the beginning to refocus them is to raise my hand, as they raise their hand, they close their mouth and pass the message to others. Sounds cheesy, but it’s super effective as they are learning how to manage my class.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?

Every fall, students fill out a Who Am I form that I stole from Pinterest. They get to see my responses and ask me questions, allowing them to get to know me as a human being.

I also have them write down anything I might need to know as a teacher about them, past what is in their school records, similar to the #Iwishmyteacherknew campaign. This opportunity gives me perspective on their individual needs and helps me understand what they might get overwhelmed by each year, or what they might need differently for science learning. As each class is mostly work time, this allows me to interact with my students answering questions, clarifying directions and listening to their conversations.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.

One of the main reasons I do my own version of #Iwishmyteacherknew is because of an interaction I had with a family in May last year. I had struggled with a particular student all year long, his behavior was obnoxious daily and he constantly was off task, pulling others off task with him and generally working towards being removed from his peers every block as he just couldn’t handle being in the room.

In May, the family requested a meeting with teachers and the counselor, where we found out that this student has Aspergers. Had I known that, our interactions would have been different because I would have known more about him and his needs as a learner and human in society. Once I heard this, we were able to work with each other each day, instead of constantly playing tug-of-war.

What are you reading for enjoyment? I tend to read teen dystopian novels, because they are fun and fast reads with a bit of science fiction mixed in. I also like to read books that my son might enjoy, even if it takes him months to try one, only to realize Mom was right and the book is lots of fun to read!

What’s the best advice you ever received? In my first teaching job, I was told to never make the custodian or secretary mad at you as they can make your life miserable. This has stayed with me, because it’s so amazingly true. My room is typically cleaner than others because I smile and talk with the custodian. I can talk my way into “favors” with the office staff because I know our school would quickly fall apart without them. Schools wouldn’t and couldn’t run day to day without our educational support colleagues!

Art education

How I Teach: This Memphis art teacher uses her own childhood scribbles to inspire her students

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
With the help of a picture book, Anna Barton Schnadelbach discusses murals with her students at Memphis Scholars Caldwell-Guthrie Elementary School.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

When Anna Barton Schnadelbach asked her art students to draw something to make the world a more beautiful place, one student asked for help to draw flowers.

“You’re an artist,” he told Barton Schnadelbach as she outlined flowers in crayon.

“We’re all artists!” shouted a few of his classmates.

It’s a familiar mantra from Barton Schnadelbach, who teaches visual art at Memphis Scholars Caldwell-Guthrie Elementary School. She has even shown her students her own scribbles as a 5-year-old to help them visualize their teacher when she was their age.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Barton Schnadelbach outlines flowers for one of her students.

We asked her a to explain more about her teaching style and how she incorporates life lessons into art class in this installment of How I Teach:

Why did you become a teacher?

After working in the legal field for a decade, I decided to go back to school for a master’s in art therapy. While taking undergraduate prerequisite art courses, I met an amazing professor. Her work and course were incredible, but some of my younger classmates struggled with her instruction. I was 30-something taking a freshman- level course with 18- and 19-year olds. I would break down the instruction in ways that were more digestible. My professor noticed this and told me I would make a great teacher. Something in that moment just clicked. A few weeks later I was changing my degree from art therapy to art education.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?

It’s basic, but I love teaching color mixing with a primary color scheme. There is a spark ignited when a child experiences self-discovery. The sheer amazement that comes with creating “new” color is one of the most joyous expressions I have ever seen.

So many times I hear, “I can’t” or “it’s too hard.” But this [lesson] is fail-proof. Any combination produces something new and interesting.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
After working in the legal field for a decade, Barton Schnadelbach now teaches about art.

I break everything down to basics. When a student says I can’t draw this or that, we study the object together and look for the basic lines and shapes. I emphasize daily that I’m only looking for your personal best. If all my students came in as perfect artists, I’d be out of a job.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task?

For K-2, I say “1-2-3, all artists freeze, hands on your head, bubble in your mouth.”

For 3-5, I use “Yo? Yo? Yo! And they respond Yo! What’s up?”

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?

I always begin by telling them about me. I show them my struggles with art. I allow them to see me as a person. I have a bulletin board that I put up at the beginning of the year. It has work dating back to pre-K, along with photographs of me throughout the years.

As a child, it’s hard to remember that your teacher was once a child too. Sharing my 5-year-old scribbles and bad middle school bangs makes me a little more approachable.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
A poster outlines what to do if a student makes a mistake.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.

I think the most memorable moments are ones like the time a student introduced me to her mother, “Momma, this is Ms. Barton, she’s my school mama. Ms. Barton, this my momma.”

Knowing a child is hungry, they’ve lost a loved one, someone is in jail, the heat is out; these things influence my perspective and approach.

I couldn’t teach without my:

Imagination. I have worked in situations where supplies were scarce and resources few, but as long as I have my imagination, I can make a lesson work.

What’s the best advice you ever received?

Every day is a clean slate. Don’t hold grudges. Even with my most trying children, I have to start every day fresh, with a new dose of patience.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Colorful artwork adorns Barton Schnadelbach’s Memphis classroom.