charter schools

Charter schools in Memphis owe Shelby County Schools more than $1 million

PHOTO: Kyle Kurlick
Shelby County Schools Superintendent Dorsey Hopson aims to increase the district's four-year graduation rate from 75 percent to 90 percent by 2025.

Since 2009, actual charter school enrollment in Memphis has been below what the schools had projected before school started.

Those overly optimistic projections on the part of a few charter schools, and unpaid fees for utilities, rent, retirement, and other services on the part of a dozen more, mean Shelby County Schools is now owed more than $1.6 million by charter school operators.

Shelby County superintendent Dorsey Hopson II informed the district’s board during a work session last week that the district plans to ask the state for permission to collect that money back from charter schools in the city.

The W.E.B. Dubois Charter Consortium, run by former Memphis superintendent and mayor Willie Herenton, and City University, run by the Influence I Foundation, received money for hundreds of students who did not attend their schools. The two organizations owe the district a combined $867,000 due to the enrollment variance.

Last year, projected enrollment in charters in the district was 10,919, while only 8,769 students attended the publicly-funded, independently-run schools. In each of the previous three years, charter schools had overestimated on average by between 650 and 700 students.

The City Boys Prep, City University Girls Prep, Freedom Preparatory, Grizzlies Prep, KIPP Memphis Collegiate Middle, MAHS Middle, MASE, the Memphis School of Excellence, Power Center Middle, Promise Academy, and Veritas charter schools also owe the district money, either for insurance, retirement, rent, or utilities.

The district plans to deduct a ninth of the fee owed to the district from each charter school in coming months in 2014.

According to the Commercial Appeal, Shelby County Schools has reached an agreement with former mayor Herenton’s schools to address the overprojected enrollment for last year, which includes a school for juvenile offenders at Northside High that closed midyear.

Approximately $78 million will be spent on charter schools this year to educate an estimated 11,824 students, according to projections. The district has approximately 111,000 students overall.

In addition to the $1.6 owed by district-sponsored charters, the state-run Achievement School District owes the school district approximately $703,000, for services including special education, alternative education, insurance, and transportation.

At last week’s board meeting, commissioner Chris Caldwell said there was an incentive for charter schools to inflate enrollment projections. Charter schools receive funding from the district for each child they’re projected to enroll. “I don’t think it’s unfair to make sure they make more accurate projections,” he said.

Board chair Kevin Woods said the district was considering creating a “compact” with its charter schools, which would encourage them to collaborate more with the district.

View the complete list of which schools owe the district money here.

unions in charters

When charter schools unionize, students learn more, study finds

A UFT organizer hands out a pro-union flier to Emily Samuels, one of Opportunity Charter School's administrators. To the left, Ana Patejdl, a teacher at the school.

When charter school teachers push to unionize, charter leaders often fight back.

That’s happened in Chicago, New Orleans, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Washington DC. Unionizing, they argue, would limit the schools’ ability to innovate, ultimately hurting kids.

But a new study of California schools finds that, far from harming student achievement, unionization of charter schools actually boosts test scores.

“In contrast to the predominant public opinion about school unionizations, we find that unionization has a positive … impact on student math performance,” write researchers Jordan Matsudaira of Cornell and Richard Patterson of the U.S. Military Academy.

The analysis is hardly the last word on the question, but it highlights the limited evidence for the idea that not having unionized teachers helps charter schools succeed — even though that is a major aspect of the charter-school movement, as most charters are not unionized.

“Contrary to the anti-worker and anti-union ideologues, the teacher unions in charter schools don’t impede teaching and learning or hurt kids,” said Randi Weingarten, the president of the American Federation of Teachers, which represents teachers in more than 240 charter schools. “And the findings — that schools with teachers who have an independent voice through its unions have a positive effects on student performance — are consistent with common sense and other studies.”

The study, just published in the peer-reviewed Economics of Education Review, finds that about a quarter of all charters in California — 277 of 1,127 — were unionized as of 2013. Together, they taught nearly a third of the state’s students in charter schools.

Forty-four of those schools unionized between 2003 and 2013. To understand the effects of that change, the researchers compared trends in test scores of schools after they unionized to similar schools that didn’t unionize during that time.

The researchers find that unionization increased students’ annual math test scores, and those gains persisted for least three years. The students who started at the lowest achievement levels seemed to benefit the most.

Those gains were fairly substantial: In math, they were about three times the size of the total advantage conferred by urban charter schools nationwide, according to research frequently cited by charter school advocates.

The estimated impact on English scores was positive, but small and not statistically significant.

The paper was not able to explain why unionization seemed to improve student learning, though the authors say it could relate to improved teacher morale or better relationships between teachers and school leadership. Oddly, unionization seemed to lead to a decline in teachers’ years of experience; it did not have any effect on class size.

The study comes with some significant caveats. Although the researchers make extensive efforts to make apples-to-apples comparisons among schools, it’s difficult to be sure that unionization is what caused the test-score gains. If schools that were already more likely to improve were also more likely to unionize, that could explain the results.

David Griffith, a senior research and policy associate at the Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank, said the study was well done but noted its inability to explain the results.

Griffith, who released an analysis last week showing that unionized charter schools have relatively high rates of teacher absenteeism, also pointed out that many charters without unions are successful.

“Even if this study is true for these particular schools, we have examples of really high-performing non-unionized charter schools,” he said. “It’s difficult to leap from this study to say that [for example] KIPP, which gets these fantastic results, should unionize.”

Previous research has shown middling performance for one of the most high-profile unionized charters in the state, Green Dot, while other non-unionized schools, like the Alliance charter network in Los Angeles, posted better scores.

In contrast to the latest research, a previous study of California’s charter schools found that unionization had no significant effect on test scores.

Since the findings are focused on just a fraction of California’s unionized charter schools, they might not apply to other charter schools in the state or country — or say anything about the effects of unions in traditional public schools.

showdown

McQueen’s deadline looms for Memphis and Nashville to share student info with charter schools — and no one is budging

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
A request for student contact information from Green Dot Public Schools to help with enrollment efforts sparked a fight between the state and Shelby County Schools.

As Tennessee’s two largest school districts fought an order to share student information with charter schools, the state education commissioner set a deadline last week.

Candice McQueen told the superintendents of Shelby County Schools and Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools they had to provide the data to charter schools that asked for it by Sept. 25 — or the state would “be forced to consider actions to enforce the law.”

But with just three days until the deadline, neither district has said it will budge. The consequences “will be determined Monday,” McQueen told Chalkbeat on Friday.

McQueen has not offered more information about what those consequences could be, though some lawmakers have worried it could mean funding cuts. There is some precedent for such a move: The Nashville district lost $3.4 million in state funding in 2012 when it refused to approve a controversial charter school, according to The Tennessean.

The clash comes after the Nashville and Memphis districts refused to turn over student contact information to charter networks, who argue that information is vital to their operation. Many Memphis schools, including those in the state-run school district, have been struggling with under-enrollment.

An amendment to an untested U.S. Department of Education rule suggests local districts can withhold information like phone numbers, addresses and email addresses — but a new state law requires Tennessee districts to hand it over to charter schools within 30 days.

The state department of education asked the attorney general’s office to weigh in. Last week, the attorney general said the districts had to turn the information over, but also that districts could take a “reasonable period of time” to notify parents about their right to opt out.

Shelby County Schools posted opt-out forms for parents on its website the next day, and gave parents until Oct. 22 to fill them out. The form allows parents to keep their information from charter schools specifically or from outside entities more broadly, including companies like yearbook providers, for example.

What Memphis parents should know about how schools share student information

The school boards for the two districts have been in lockstep in defying the state’s order, with the Memphis board even offering to write a legal opinion if Nashville were to go to court over the issue.

Shelby County Schools Superintendent Dorsey Hopson said his legal team is still reviewing the attorney general’s opinion.

“We still want to make sure parents know what their options are,” Hopson told Chalkbeat on Tuesday. “When we [McQueen and I] talked, she understood that our opt-out forms were out there.”

Anna Shepherd, board chair for the Nashville district, said the board met with its attorney this week to discuss the issue but took no action.

“We have not had any further conversation with the state concerning the release of data for MNPS students,” Shepherd said by email. “I’m not anticipating any action [before Monday].”

Reporter Caroline Bauman contributed to this report.